Final Paper – Framing Of North Korea

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We need to scrutinize the public image of North Korea because a contemporary society is a persona created by many forms of media. The image therefore becomes more important than the actual information about that country. It is said that the actions of people towards anything is based on the image that is prescribed in their minds. Marton & Boddewyn demand that in the long run individuals’ activities are not just taking into account the shaped picture about the world in their psyches, but additionally are controlled by the “given image.” (1978, p. 25).

Additionally, a country is recognized by images and pictures, a national picture is made by a wide range of sorts of short bits of information, which are picked up straightforwardly and in a roundabout way over drawn out stretches of time. Be that as it may a national picture is not altered; rather, through the course of time, it is replenished by diverse components. In this study, national picture is characterized as not settled. It is characterized as made, picked up, and changed specifically and by implication after some time through distinctive components made by individuals’ response to diverse components connected with it, for example, media representation and global connections.

Since national picture is critical (in light of the fact that individuals comprehend the nation through the picture), examine about national picture is essential. These days, the pictures of articles or occasions are made all the more by roundabout encounters (for the most part by the media) than by direct encounters with the genuine environment (particularly, for a shut nation). At the end of the day, individuals for the most part shape pictures in light of data given by the media. As per McCombs, the most essential media impact is to “structure and arrange our reality for us” (1994, p. 3). He keeps on argueing that “significant confirmation has collected that columnists assume a key part in forming our photos of the world as they go about their day by day assignment of selecting and reporting the news” (McCombs, 1994, p. 3). Other correspondence researchers likewise contend the media’s parts in individuals’ understanding reality. Case in point, Gitlin (1980) underscores that media edges compose the world for both writers and people (media customers). Tuchman additionally brings up news edges force “request and reasonability on the social world” (1978). Hence, for some people, the data gave by the broad communications is the best way to comprehend and see certifiable issues.

In particular, for occurrence, if a nation is a shut society to the world (like North Korea), and individuals at times increase data about the nation on the individual level, the picture of the nation is generally made by broad communications scope and authority declarations from the legislature. Hence, individuals for the most part comprehend the shut society (nation) and make the national picture of the shut society (nation) in view of media scope and authority legislative declarations about the general public (nation). Under this condition, the parts of media and government are imperative for individuals’ comprehension of the shut nation (or society). As it were, official legislative declarations and media scope have affected individuals to make a national picture of shut nation (or society).

North Korea, as a sample, is very nearly the main shut nation on the planet. Couple of individuals travel or visit North Korea. Hence, individuals more often than not depend on authority administrative declarations and news scope for making a national picture of North Korea and seeing North Korea. In this circumstance, contingent upon the surrounding of government and media, individuals make the national picture of North Korea. One of the fitting illustrations can be found in President Bush’s talk in the 2002 State of the Union location. Through this discourse, Bush assigned North Korea as a “baneful forces that be” nation to legitimize his war on dread. Because of his sign, numerous American individuals see North Korea as a risky, radical, and rough nation. In confining and making the national picture of a nation, media and government by and large utilize unique procedures (e.g., catchphrases, pictures, extraordinary words, allegories, and so forth.). These days, the idea of media confining is getting to be more overwhelming in the group of writing tending to the news media’s procedures, their parts, and their belongings in the general public (Smith, 1997). Therefore, to examine and comprehend media and discourse writings, breaking down these encircling methods is vital.

Therefore, I am to examine how media portrays North Korea, looking at the frames used by U.S. newspapers, documentaries, photo journalism and so on.

Selected Media:

The primary media I will be looking into and discussing is a photograph reporting venture by picture taker Erikk Lafforgue. Erikk’s task titled ‘North Korea – The photos Kim Jon doesn’t need you to see’ showcases North Korea, particularly Pyongyang as a city precluded to bicyclists, pregnant ladies, the elderly, rationally sick and handicapped. Not just that, the task goes above and beyond to create that North Koreans are frightful of contact with outsiders (they may very well end up in a jail camp) and persevere through exceptionally grave lives. It likewise depicts Pyongyang as a high and mighty, male-overwhelmed society. The second venture is by a German photojournalist Julia Leeb. Her work peels back the cover that covers the nation and takes minutes to take affirmation for whatever remains of the world. Since structural engineering is so frequently utilized and charged as an image of riches and influence, the structures of North Korea, a state established in the fallout of World War II, recount the narrative of oppressed world one loaded with symbols of despots, bewildering towers of shared lodging, and an inn that, notwithstanding once being in the running for world’s tallest building, stays only an unfilled shell.

From multiple points of view, North Korea is a period container of previous time, both as one of the final Communist fortifications and as an absolutely detached region. After Japanese addition amid World War II, the Soviet Union introduced another authoritarian government in 1946, and red countries over the globe helped revamp the bombarded out capital city of Pyongyang. Momentous construction modeling shows a united front for the administration’s open picture; galleries dab the city including misrepresented displays that broadcast the predominance of the nation’s development and industry.

The city’s focal center has been based on a standard socialist adaption of the Corbusian style with exceptional flares composed into the city horizon maybe for parades and occasions like this. In spite of the unlucky deficiency of autos, the streets are enormous. The socialist style of city arranging as a rule permits the focal city organizers to simply permit monstrous sizes of development. As should be obvious in the diagram, Moscow’s development in the soviet period contrasted with pair is just about triple. On the off chance that the socialist administration in Pyongyang falls as anticipated and completed in Moscow, the lodging advancement could be set free without the assistance of focal arranging of areas of new homes.

Except for a total of perhaps ten cities, vast areas of North Korea are rural—or even untouched. These are areas that are not just underdeveloped, but undeveloped. For example, in 1985 a mining town in the northeastern part of North Korea had houses with no running water, no electric or fuel heating system, no lavatories or bath, no washbasin, no kitchen, and almost no furnishings. The residents used communal facilities and lived in tiny two-room houses heated by coal. Houses were equipped with electricity for lights, but its use was strictly controlled.

With the exception of an aggregate of maybe ten urban areas, tremendous ranges of North Korea are country or even untouched. These are ranges that are immature, as well as undeveloped. For instance, in 1985 a mining town in the northeastern piece of North Korea had houses with no running water, no electric or fuel warming framework, no latrines or shower, no washbasin, no kitchen, and no furniture. The inhabitants utilized public offices and lived as a part of small two-room houses warmed by coal. Houses were furnished with power for lights, yet its utilization was entirely controlled.

Pyongyang is checked by an arranged cityscape, bunched around Kim Il Sung-related landmarks, for example, the 20-foot-high gold statue of Kim that looks down on the city. The capital is situated on the Taedong, a to a great degree delightful stream with little islands and a riverbank secured with swinging willows and pleasantly kept flowerbeds. Everything in the focal point of the capital is painstakingly outlined and manufactured, including the People’s Study Hall, Children’s Palace, Mansudae Art Hall, Pyongyang Grand Theater, the Parisien style curve, and as of late assembled universal inns and eateries. Amid the 1960s and 1970s, the crest of Pyongyang’s reproduction after the Korean War, the essential grim style and format of the city was made. A few structures, for example, the Korean Revolutionary Museum and Kim Il Sung University, bear the highlights of European innovator construction modeling. These are blended with the more convention propelled structural engineering of the 1980s, including the People’s Study Hall and the city entryway.

A lion’s share of Pyongyang’s inhabitants live in lofts. Individual houses with their own particular power and warming frameworks are saved for high-positioning gathering individuals and armed force officers. In the late 1990s, individual homes got to be well known among after war repatriates from Japan, who, through money related backing from their families staying in Japan, have the capacity to buy houses. The larger part of North Korean subjects don’t claim an auto.

Aside from the capital and a not very many urban areas that are equivalent to it, the national scene is partitioned into semi-urban, undeveloped, and rural regions. As guests are not permitted, very little is thought about the rural zones.

North Korean nature stores can be greatly delightful. National resorts, for example, Mount Myohyang and Mount Kumgang are mysterious in their appeal and vainglorious magnificence. Here excessively one finds the progressive trademarks, for example, “Long Live the Great Leader Kim Il Sung!” One can see these mottos not just on boards that can be evacuated if vital, additionally cut on the rough dividers of mountains, loaded with changeless red paint.

North Korea has built a progressive journey course, checking vital areas joined with Kim Il Sung’s hostile to Japanese resistance. These incorporate the Mount Paektu and the woodland encompassing it, Hyesan city in the focal north and its region, and different ranges principally focused on the Chinese fringe. Another journey site is Kim Il Sung’s origin in Man’gyongdae, close Pyongyang, where the cabin where he grew up is safeguarded.

The Other View:

In this study, the representations of the North Korean national picture in diverse media were mulled over to recognize how the media scope confined North Korea. Investigation of the scope of North Korea in the U.S. daily papers demonstrates that amid the two year period when information were gathered, The New York Times reported news things identified with North Korea more regularly than Washington Post. This outcome recommends that The New York Times was managing worldwide issues (particularly, identified with North Korea) more regularly than Washington Post. Nonetheless, as per the lengths of the articles, Washington Post utilized a greater number of words than The New York Times when they depicted news issues identified with North Korea. This discovering may demonstrate that The New York Times speaks to worldwide news every now and again, while Washington Post depicts universal news all the more altogether.

As far as the sorts of news articles, The New York Times and Washington Post demonstrated a comparative pattern. Among the 161 gathered news articles, just about 80% of the articles were general news, while 20% of articles were analyses identifying with North Korea. Be that as it may, while reporting analyses, Washington Post utilized just articles, while The New York Times utilized publications and segments. It recommends that Washington Post spoke to its authority supposition about North Korea through its representatives, though The New York Times spoke to its authority feeling through specialists from the outside and its workers.

Likewise, in the news scope of North Korea, there were numerous more negative casings (those that were hostile to North Korea) than positive casings (those that were star North Korea). In particular, the news articles depicting hostile to North Korea of The New York Times were twenty times as various as the news articles depicting genius North Korea; and the news scope depicting against North Korea of Washington Post were likewise eleven times as various as the news scope depicting expert North Korea. Generally speaking, with the exception of an impartial casing, an against North Korea edge ruled the news scope of North Korea in both daily papers, showing that the U.S. new media have a comparable perspective about North Korea as the American government’s worldwide arrangement for North Korea. Specifically, through assessing the tone of news articles by using 5 point scales, the overwhelming and significant edges were unfavorable toward North Korea.

Moreover, by arranging gathered news articles into eight bunches, this study uncovers that most news articles (with the exception of the others group) identified with North Korea were ordered into negative groups rather than positive bunches. The U.S. daily papers encircled the national picture of North Korea through wickedness, adversary, blackmailer, and poor nation pictures, while the daily papers did not utilized positive pictures, for example, companion when the daily paper depicted North Korea.

At long last, on the grounds that per-users’ responses were not took a gander at in this study, future exploration may look at per-users’ responses to the national pictures through the daily paper scope. Through research on per-users’ responses, future exploration can discover whether the national pictures made by the news media impact per-users and make in individuals’ brains national pictures of particular nations.


The City of Glassifornia – Class Activity

The idea of my city originates from the movie ‘The Island’. I will take the all of the world’s orphans below the age of 3 and raise them up inside my city which would have the following features:

1. The construction would be comprised of circular and soft edged minimalistic buildings, nothing taller than another.

2. The whole city would be made of glass and would rewrite the notions of public/private space.

3. The basic infrastructure would be controlled through machines equipped with Artificial Intelligence.

4. The people would be raised inside a system that just focuses on the basic needs of survival. Food, Water, Shelter and Companionship.

5. There will be no Socio Economic Classes and everyone would be paid equally for a predefined set of jobs.

6. One form of transport.

7. Internal media companies run by the head of the city (me).

8. Independent Internet facility which is cut off from the rest of the world.

9. I would be one in control of the system of the city.

Response to Enjoy Poverty

A week ago I watched and took part in a discussion about, Renzo Martens work ‘Enjoy Poverty’.  The film is a documentary self-shot by Martens as he tries to enlighten people in the Congo that poverty is their biggest resource and should be used as such.  It’s quite a difficult watch and passes through the traditional territory of films about poverty. As well as it touches on issues arising from the relationship between the West and poverty through the mediums of photojournalism, medical aid and financial aid. The film leaves a confusion about Martens’ aims, the two main concerns in the film follow a group of Congolese photographers who he teaches to take photos of ‘raped women and malnourished children’ in order to sell them like their western counterparts and make a healthy profit compared to their current work photographing weddings.  The other recurring concern follows a neon sign which Martens sets up in several locations as a focus for his enlightenment work.  Which is focussed on translating his idea that poverty seems to be pretty unlikely to change soon and, as he initially posits, may even be a resource to be plundered.  This being the situation, Martens suggests, that poverty should be enjoyed rather than suffered.  Although he’s never clear about the details of this.

One of the questions that comes out from the film is that the relationship between journalist and subject is often ethically troubling where the journalist records the suffering of the subject whilst financially gaining.  Obviously the work of a journalist and photojournalist is to communicate news- as is stated by a doctor from Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) as the difference between the Conogolese photographers and the western photographers allowed to work in MSF hospitals.  But communication of the news is a service, one that via public subscription TV watchers across the world fund.  It’s public broadcastings base aim to offer this unbiased reportage on events in the world.  However the photojournalists in Congo are on paid expenses and then paid per photo or per video that makes it onto TV or into print.  The financial marketisation, and especially the paid by the piece nature, seem to diminish the service nature of the work and they play out a role similar to a miner. Pillaging the land for the raw material they can sell- in this case that is emotionally poignant photographs.

The photographs themselves may go onto serve good purposes.  They may front campaigns that motivate people to give money, time and energy to tackling poverty and associated issues around healthcare.  They may be part of news reporting that changes global perspectives on poverty and puts pressure on governments to make political changes.  However working out the global social value of anyone one image is particularly challenging and probably unimportant.  As a practice I think it is important that photography, and by extension, all media, bears witness to suffering.  Not giving a voice to the powerless necessarily, but highlighting that there are voices to be listened to. My issue comes when the photographs are taken with the intention of having a meta narrative, so that in the photographers mind they are not communicating the situation in it’s particularity but instead imploring donation for example.  These are constructed images, except the photographers are sadly not making this up but just framing and shooting only the suffering that fits their clients brief.

Which leaves me thinking that do photographers/communication designers consider the user’s wish to be disrupted, do they have to consent or, are the communication specialists deciding that they know whats best?

Orientalism is in the air!

Bonjour, Air France!

I’ve never ridden your airplanes because I don’t live in France. But, I hear you fly to lots of other countries, too — like Japan, China and parts of the US. So, maybe, some day, I’ll be contemplating booking a flight on your carrier.

Except, I also see you’re being kinda Orientalist, right now.


See, you just launched a new ad campaign, called “France is in the Air”, and you’re really excited that this ad campaign will be released in 12 countries, as well as through the Internet and on social media. Your website tells me that in addition to 6 “visuals” that will tell me about all the awesome features of your airplanes (like gastronomy), your ad campaign also “is supplemented by 12 visuals depicting iconic destinations served by Air France (Paris, New York, Brazil, China, Japan, Africa, Italy, etc).”

12 visuals depicting 12 iconic destinations that you’ll be plastering all over those exact same 12 countries? How exciting! (Please note also that Africa is a continent, not a country.)

If only you hadn’t ended up with an ad campaign that actually features (mostly) White women wearing stereotypical racial and cultural drag to depict all those exotic non-Westernized countries.

How positively, fetishistically Orientalist.

Take a quick peek at that visual you created to advertise your presence in Tokyo. Compared to the smiling, humanized ‘Parisian’ woman in a beret (which, incidentally, is about as “iconically French” as an ironic hipster, these days), the Tokyo visual features a pouting angry White woman who looks like she stepped off the set of Memoirs of a Geisha.

Or, look at what you did to this model in trying to depict your flights to Beijing.


To sell Air France to the people of these countries, you show a picture of a woman wearing yellowface makeup to mimic the shape of my Asiatic eye, and looking fiercely off-camera as she triumphantly mounts the mutilated carcass of my Chinese culture on her head like a gruesome, blood-soaked trophy.

I understand that you just want to tell your customers that you fly to exotic locales. But, the problem here, is that the portrayal of the exotic locales you cater to — and the cultures that call these locales home — have been flattened in your ad campaign into a sensationalized, fictionalized, dragon lady caricature of our culture; and, one that is largely the invention of your imagination. In fact, it bears very little resemblance to me and my people.

It’s clear that your ad campaign may be running in the countries of my people, but you’re not actually trying to sell Air France to the people of these countries.

You’re trying to sell the people of these countries to your people.

And, whereas you gleefully grabbed at the low-hanging Orientalist yellowface fruit for your depictions of China and Japan, you were perfectly happy to offer more sophisticated and nuanced imagery for your depictions of countries that, I suppose, are more culturally familiar to you.

I mean, by the logic of your own ad campaign, the “Tokyo” model has about as much business being in a geisha costume as the “Paris” woman should be wearing the pasty white face-paint and black-and-white sweater of a French mime.


The rest of your campaign also raises some more questions with me.

I mean, according to your ad campaign, the iconic cultural costume of South America is dressing up like a parrot furry?


And, also, what the heck were you thinking when you thought this was going to be an “iconic” image representing the diasporic African experience?


And, finally, while I’m really grateful that you actually did decide to include a beautiful Black model in your campaign, what exactly about a picture of her standing in front of some “urban graffiti” makes her representative of New York City?


How is the message of this visual not: “Fly to New York and meet your first sassy Black woman!”?

I get that no one really wants to fly any more, and you want to make it cool again. But must you use and misuse the cultures of other people to do it?

Next time I contemplate traveling to France, I’ll definitely be thinking about looking elsewhere; maybe at an airline that doesn’t treat cultures like costumes.